Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 362-367
Bonding, Resilience and Their Promotion by the Pediatrician Taking into Account the Covid-19-Challenge
Hans Michael Strassburg, Former Children’s University Hospital Wuerzburg, Gerbrunn, Germany
Received: Aug. 12, 2020;       Accepted: Aug. 28, 2020;       Published: Sep. 3, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajp.20200603.42      View  89      Downloads  79
The history of childhood is also a history of endangerment and abuse of children. In addition to biological conditions, the experience of basic trust is essential. Based on her sociological field research for successful survival, the developmental psychologist Emmy Werner used the term resilience (elasticity), which originates from technology and considers this to be learnable. In developmental psychology emotional security, curiosity, recognition, boundaries, and community have been described as essential prerequisites that can be divided into child-related, family, and social resilience factors. Although stable mother-child attachment is undoubtedly an essential foundation for healthy development, there are fundamental discussions in the practical implementation, e.g. the beginning of the non-domestic occupation of the mother and nursery care. Today, the autonomy of the infant, its empathic observation, and its imitation of role models are recognized as the essential foundation of development. In the field of psychology and neurophysiology, above all impulse control and the training of empathy and self-will have been identified as important factors for successful personality development. Resilience is hampered by family conflicts, ambivalent, and psychologically abnormal behavior of close associates, as well as poverty and traumatic experiences after the first year of life. There is evidence that a child’s spirituality encourages its resilience. Diverse social-political achievements and pediatric offers in the first years of life can promote resilience but they must be used as early as possible and developed further. In the actual worldwide Covid-19-pandemia the promotion of a resilient behavior is of very great importance.
Mother-Child Relationship, Personality Development, Personal Autonomy, Psychological Trauma, Self-Regulation, Covid-19-Pandemia
To cite this article
Hans Michael Strassburg, Bonding, Resilience and Their Promotion by the Pediatrician Taking into Account the Covid-19-Challenge, American Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2020, pp. 362-367. doi: 10.11648/j.ajp.20200603.42
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ariès, P. (1962) Centuries of Childhood. A Social History of Family Life. Alfred A. Knopf.
Badinter, E. (2012) The Conflict: How Modern Motherhood Undermines the Status of Women. Kindle Edition.
Bowlby, J. (1988) A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. Tavistock professional book. London: Routledge.
Brisch, K. H. (2008) Der Säugling – Bindung, Neurobiologie und Gene – Grundlagen für Prävention, Beratung und Therapie. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart
Dolto, F. (1995) La Difficulté de Vivre, Ed. Gallimard, Paris.
von Gontard, A. (2010) Säuglings- und Kleinkindpsychiatrie. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart.
von Gontard, A. (2013) Spiritualität von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Allgemeine und psychotherapeutische Aspekte. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart.
Greenspan, S. and N. Greenspan (1995) First feelings. Milestones in the emotional development of your baby and child. From birth to age 4. Viking, New York.
Holder, M. D., B. Coleman and J. M. Wallace (2010) Spirituality, religiousness, and happiness in children aged 8–12 years. Journal of Happiness Studies 11: 131–150.
Keysers, C. (2011) The Empathic Brain. How the Discovery of Mirror Neurons Changes Our Understanding of Human Nature, Lexington, Ky. Social Brain Press.
Largo, R. and M. Czernin (2015) Glückliche Scheidungskinder: Was Kinder nach der Trennung brauchen. Piper, München.
Meyer-Probst, B. and O. Reis (1999) Von der Geburt bis 25 – Rostocker Längsschnittstudie. Kindheit und Entwicklung 8: 59–68.
Michaelis, R. and G. Niemann (2017) Entwicklungsneurologie und Neuropädiatrie. Grundlagen, diagnostische Strategien, Entwicklungstherapien und Entwicklungsförderungen. Thieme, Stuttgart.
Mischel, W. (2014) The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-Control. Little Brown, New York.
Montgomery, S. M., A. Ehlin and A. Sacker (2006) Breast feeding and resilience against psychosocial stress. Archive of Diseases in Childhood 91: 990–994.
Perry, P. (2019) The Book You Wish Your Parents Had Read (and Your Children Will Be Glad That You Did) Pinguin.
Pikler-Loczy Association (2007) Bringing up and providing care for infants and toddlers in an institution. htpps://shop.pikler.hu.
Renz-Polster, H. (2009) Kinder verstehen – Born to be wild: wie die Evolution unsere Kinder prägt. Kösel, München.
Renz-Polster, H. (2016) Menschenkinder – artgerechte Erziehung – was unser Nachwuchs wirklich braucht. Kösel, München.
Rösler, F. and B. Röder (Ed.) (2014) Frühkindliche Sozialisation – Biologische, psychologische, linguistische, soziologische und ökonomische Perspektiven. Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina e. V. – Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften, Halle (Saale), 62–73.
Straßburg, H. M. (2016) Kind und Glaube – ein Plädoyer für ein neues Kinderbewusstsein. Spiritual Care 5: 311–316.
Straßburg, H. M. (2018) Bindung und Resilienz und ihre Förderung durch den Kinderarzt. Monatsschrift für Kinderheilkunde 166: 700-707.
Straßburg, H. M., W. Dacheneder and W. Kress (2018) Entwicklungsstörungen bei Kindern – Praxisleitfaden für die interdisziplinäre Betreuung. 6th edition. Urban & Fischer, München.
Straßburg, H. M. and K. P. Zimmer (2018) Warum die Kinderrechte in das Grundgesetz gehören. Deutsches Ärzteblatt DÄB 115: 45-47.
Tietze, W., F. Becker-Stoll, J. Bensel et al (Ed.) (2015) NUBBEK – Nationale Untersuchung zur Bildung, Betreuung und Erziehung in der frühen Kindheit. Fragestellungen und Ergebnisse im Überblick. www.nubbek.de.
Werner, E. (1989) Vulnerable, but invincible, a longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. Adams, Bannister and Cox, New York.
Browse journals by subject