Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2019, Page: 28-33
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with Lupus Nephritis in a 15 Year-Old Male – A Case Report
Rahmi Utami, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
Syarifuddin Rauf, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
Received: Jan. 14, 2019;       Accepted: Feb. 20, 2019;       Published: Mar. 21, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajp.20190501.16      View  172      Downloads  36
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that can affect any part of the body. Lupus Nephritis is one of the most common, and most important, serious manifestations of SLE particularly for male. We present a case of 15 year old male that is diagnosed with a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on 6 of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), diagnostic criteria developed namely: malar rash, arthritis, photosensitive, kidney disorders (hematuria), immunological disorders (positive anti-dsDNA), and blood disorders (anemia, leucopenia). The result of the kidney’s biopsy indicated the patient already developed Lupus Nephritis.. The patient responded very well with corticosteroid. Although male patient with SLE is not commonly seen, the manifestations are life threatening and early detection of disease will lead to better outcome of the patient. Antimalaria drugs Hydrochloroquine is useful in patients with SLE glomerulonephritis. In consequences of their numerous beneficial effects, antimalarials appear to have a protective effect on survival in SLE.
Keywords
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Lupus Nephritis, Male SLE, Hydrochloroquine
To cite this article
Rahmi Utami, Syarifuddin Rauf, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with Lupus Nephritis in a 15 Year-Old Male – A Case Report, American Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2019, pp. 28-33. doi: 10.11648/j.ajp.20190501.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Rebecca E. Sadun, Stacy P. Ardoin, and Laura E. Schanberg. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. In: Kliegman, Robert., Et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics (Edition 20.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. 2016: 1176-1180.
[2]
Murphy G, Isenberg D. Effect of gender on clinical presentation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Review Rheumatology (2013) doi: 10.1093/rheumaytology/ket160.
[3]
Renau AI, Isenberg DA. Male vs Female Lupus. A comparison of ethnicity, clinical features, serology and outcome over a 30 year period. DOI: 10.1177/0961203312444771.
[4]
Schwartzman-Morris J, Putterman C. Gender Differences in the Pathogenesis and Outcome of Lupus and of Lupus Nephritis. Hindawi Publishing Corp. Clinical and Development Immunology Vol. 2012, doi: 10.1155/2021/604892.
[5]
Boodhoo KM et al. Impact of sex disparities on the clinical manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. A systematic review and meta-analysis. (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000004272
[6]
Shakur Salim et al. Illustrated Textbook of Pediatrics, 2nd edition. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 2015: 854-858.
[7]
Simmons SC, Smith L, Chang-miller A, Keddis MT. Antinuclear Antibody-Negative Lupus Nephritis with Full House Nephropathy : A Case Report and Review of the Literature. 2016; 85054: 451-459. doi: 10.1159/000443747.
[8]
Marks S, Sag E, Ravelli A, et al. G358 Performance of the new SLICC criteria for the classification of SLE in children Archives of Disease in Childhood 2014; 99: A147.
[9]
Thakral, A., & Klein-Gitelman, MS An Update on Treatment and Management of Pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Rheumatology and Therapy. 2016; 3 (2), 209–219. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40744-016-0044-0
[10]
Almeida MTM et al. Male systemic lupus erythematosus, an overlooked diagnosis. PMC US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health. (2011) doi: 10.4081/cp.2011.e103.
[11]
Manohar S, Subramanian C & Lakshmi K. Report C. An unusual case of crescentic lupus nephritis presenting with normal renal function. 2015; 1.
[12]
Mok, CC and Lau, CS Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. J. Clin Pathol. 2003; 56: 481-90.
[13]
Silverman Earl, Eddy Allison. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. In: Cassidy JT, Petty RE, Textbook of Pediatric Rheumatology. 7th edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: 285-317.
[14]
Kuhn A, Bonsmann G, Anders HJ, Herzer P, Tenbrock K, Schneider M: The diagnosis and treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2015; 112: 423–32. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2015.0423.
[15]
Kadota et al. Analysis of Gender Differences in Genetic Risk: Association of TNFAIP 3 Polymorphism with Male Childhood Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the Japanese Population. PLoS ONE 8 (8): e72551. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072551.
[16]
Klein-Gitelman MS. Pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Clinical Presentation (2018) Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape/article/1008066-clinical?src=refgatesrc1
[17]
Weening JANJ, Agati VDD, Schwartz MM, et al. The Classification of Glomerulonephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Revisited NEPHROLOGY and RENAL PATHOLOGY SOCIETY WORKING GROUP ON THE. 2004; 1982 (1): 241-250. doi: 10.1097/01.ASN.0000108969.21691.5D.
[18]
Lupus facts and statistics. National Resource Center on Lupus. Retrieved from https://www.lupus.org/resources/lupus-facts-and-statistics.
[19]
Almaani S, Meara A, Rovin BH. Update on Lupus Nephritis. 2017: 825-835.
[20]
Press D. Understanding lupus nephritis : diagnosis, management, and treatment options. 2012.
[21]
Pappas S. At Lupus Diagnosis, Men Generally Worse off than Women. 2016. Retrieved from https://www.rheumatologynetwork.com/lupus/lupus-diagnosis-men-generally-worse-women
[22]
Lee SJ, Silverman E, Bargman JM. The role of antimalarial agents in the treatment of SLE and lupus nephritis. Nature Reviews Nephrology (2011) DOI: 10.1038/nrneph.2011.150
[23]
Costedoat-Chaumea N et al. Hydroxychloroquine: A multifaceted treatment in lupus. (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2014.03.007
Browse journals by subject